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Rev. LatinAm. Metal. Mat. 2018, 38(2): 136-140

TRANSFORMACIONES DE LA MICROESTRUCTURA EN LA ZAC DE LA SOLDADURA DE ACEROS NO-SIMILARES
(MICROSTRUCTURE TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE HAZ AT DISSIMILAR STEELS WELDING)

Alberto Sandoval, Luis Zamora, Juan Aguilar, Leonardo Díaz

Online: 03-03-2018

GA-833

Abstract


Un recubrimiento de acero inoxidable se aplicó sobre una placa de acero al carbono mediante un proceso de soldadura de arco eléctrico. La alta temperatura modifica una región del metal base la cual se denomina zona afectada por el calor. El enfriamiento rápido de la zona afectada por el calor genera una microestructura meta-estable la cual se transforma a temperatura ambiente. Utilizando la técnica de microscopía electrónica de barrido, se realizaron estudios en muestras de material recién sometido a soldadura y en muestras con períodos de envejecimiento de 3 600 horas y 10 000 horas.
En el material no-envejecido se registraron carburos de morfología no-globular, los cuales incluyen en su composición los elementos de los materiales base y de aporte, es decir, son carburos múltiples. En las muestras con 3 600 horas de envejecido la morfología de los carburos fue globular. En muestras con 10 000 horas de envejecido, en los carburos globulares se registró la formación de filamentos.

A plate of carbon steel was cladding with stainless steel by means of a shielded metal arc welding process. The alloys are considered dissimilar materials. At a welding process, is not possible to predict the final metallographic characteristics of the zones at relation with the welding process. The stainless alloy was applied at melted state therefore the high temperature affected the microstructure of carbon steel, which is called heat-affected zone. Rapid solidification of the filler metal and the rapid cooling of the heat-affected zone leaded to meta-stable microstructures formation. The changes of the microstructure at the heat-affected zone were studied by scanning electron microscopy technique. At the heat affected zone of no-aging material samples, multiple carbides of no-globular morphology were recorded, which were transformed to globular morphology after of an aging process of 3 600 hours at room temperature. Passed 10 000 hours of aging, whiskers were developed from the globular carbides. Due to non-stoichiometric chemical composition, the multiple carbides are considered as intermetallic compounds.


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